A brief history of video game graphics
10 hours ago in Doc Madhattan
Q. How close are we to an effective treatment for Alzheimer's disease?It's ten years later and we are no closer to finding an AD drug. Tanzi's hope was not unwarranted given what we knew about amyloid then. But as the amyloid hypothesis matured, so did our understanding of it. First we discovered that it's not the amyloid aggregates themselves but soluble oligomers that are probably responsible for neuronal toxicity. Now it has been proposed that amyloid could have a protective antimicrobial role (I myself had an evolutionary speculation on this) in which case targeting it could even be dangerous. The fact remains that there is no proof that amyloid causes AD. It certainly seems to be related in an important way and many revealing details about it have been uncovered in the last decade, but the proof of principle has been on an increasingly slippery slope and if anything the picture gets murkier and more fascinating.
A. I wouldn't be surprised if five years from now we have a pretty effective drug that can slow the disease down enough so that it will be preventable in those at risk, and significantly slow down the deterioration of people who already have it.
Q. Why do you have such optimism?
A. Because, in 15 years, we've gone from knowing little about what causes this disease to having a pretty concrete idea of which biological pathways and body proteins are involved.
If you compare Alzheimer's to heart disease where cholesterol levels must be lowered, we now have our own cholesterol equivalent, which we call the beta-amyloid. The name of the game in Alzheimer's therapy is lowering the accumulation of beta-amyloid in the brain.