I am working on a kinase inhibitor design project and I realised that there are some key questions that we need to get answered from the biologists before we can rationalize the selectivity of various kinase inhibitors for a given binding site. I also realised that these questions need to be answered for many other kinds of protein-inhibitor interactions.
1. Whenever we get different IC50 data for two inhibitors, we immediately try to look at binding interactions that may be different for the two moelcules to rationalize this observation. But as I have alluded before, it's not the IC50 but the Ki that's really to do with different binding interactions. The Ki and IC50 are related by an equation that includes both the Km value of ATP and the concentration of ATP in the two experiments, or in general, these two parameters for the natural binding substrate for the protein. Only if these two are the same for both inhibitor experiments is the IC50=Ki. So make sure you confirm this. Otherwise, extrapolate and calculate the new IC50s based on identical values for these parameters. Then rationalize the IC50s based on binding interactions.
2. For many kinases, three events are absolutely essential for activation:
a. Phosphorylation of one Ser, Thr or Tyr residue,
b. Binding of ATP (duh), and
c. Dephosphorylation of another Ser, Thr or Tyr residue.
Think of it like a logic gate. IF the answers to all a. b. and c. are YES, THEN the kinase will be activated and proceed to perform its function. (I got this from Alberts et al.'s Molecular Biology of the Cell)
In the assays that are run, it is important to know (and not very easy to always determine as I have been told) whether the necessary residue is phosphorylated or not. For one thing, inclusion of this knowledge in your docking and modeling can naturally make a big difference. And secondly, depending on the state of phosphorylation, you can think of different modes of inhibition for your inhibitor (eg. ATP blocking + substrate blocking).
As usual, it's important to know what the biologists are doing. They don't know the nuances of modeling/crystallography and you don't know the nuances of their assays. But it's important for both camps to think of questions which the other camp should answer that will affect their own work.
How chemistry exemplifies the Fermi method
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